Cabbage is very vulnerable to disease. Her leaves have a rather delicate texture and they are easily subject to mechanical damage. But after the head starts to form, it is better to use biological preparations for processing, and they, as we know, act poorly. Hence the abundance of diseases. Reducing the risk of disease can be prevented by taking measures, but it does not always help. Below will be presented diseases of cabbage, as well as methods of prevention and control.
Cabbage Chila Disease
Kila (Latin Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor) - the most dangerous, and at the same time common disease of cabbage. Its main manifestation is the formation of tumors at the root. This leads to the beginning of rotting of the root system, and then the whole plant. The keel activity occurs during the period when the air temperature is within + 18 ... +24 degrees and humidity up to 90%. The acidic soil also has a positive effect on its development.
Spread keels worms, contaminated water in the soil, insects. Often this disease "lives" in the seeds or sprouts of young cabbage. Therefore, in order for the culture not to hurt with a keel, you need to plant it in a low-acid cultivated land and use only quality seed or planting material for planting.
Control measures. This disease of cabbage can be avoided by treating seedlings with colloidal sulfur, Tiovit or Cumulus.
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Common disease in film greenhouses penospora disease (Peronospora parasitica Gaeum), also known as downy mildew, can cause significant damage to the crop. Manifested in the form of yellowish spots on the front side of the leaves, on the back of the sheet appears a gray patina. The affected leaves quickly deform and die. If you do not fight the disease, infection of the plant’s blood vessels begins.
Penosporosis develops at a temperature of + 15 ... +25 degrees and high humidity. The fungus can live in plant residues on the plot or on seeds. A precautionary measure is to observe crop rotation, cleaning the site from any plant debris, as well as sowing healthy seeds.
Control measures. If the disease appeared on cabbage, you need to treat it with "Fitoftorin". This is a strong biological product.
The causative agents of Olpidium brassicae, Pythium debaryanum, Rhizoctonia solani cause a black leg. Damage from cabbage disease can be strong or weak, depending on the conditions. In this case, the plant root system is affected, it turns black and begins to rot. The fungus lives in the soil, so it needs time to pickle. The most active disease becomes with high humidity in the heat.
To avoid the appearance of the black stem, it is possible by treating the plant with fungicides, subject to crop rotation, sowing on slightly acidic soil.
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Alternaria brassicae, A. brassicicola, A. raphani are the causative agents of cabbage diseases such as Alternaria. This is the most common disease, as its pathogens are found in regions with different climatic conditions. Defeat is detected in black necrosis on certain parts of the cabbage. Heads become unpresentable, their taste also deteriorates.
The most active disease develops in a humid environment and at high temperatures. Its distributors are weeds, affected seeds. From here, preventive measures can be derived: maintaining normal temperature, humidity (watering), maintaining crop rotation, using treated cabbage seeds and timely removal of weeds.
Control measures. It is believed that Alternaria will not appear on the plant, if the seed TMTD. This tool helps a lot in this case. But it is impossible to use it for the treatment of already grown cultures (formed heads)! If Alternaria appeared on the formed head, it should be removed from the site as soon as possible.
White rust on cabbage
White rust (Albugo candida (Pers.) Gray) does not have the same destructive effect as keel or alternariosis. The main problem with its appearance is damage to the appearance of the heads. The fungus always accumulates under the epidermis of the leaves and when it matures, the peel breaks and a white mass comes out. Causes white rust high humidity and low temperature.
Control measures. The disease can accumulate in the plant and live there for months, so you need to remove all diseased plants and weeds that are near the cabbage, and then burn them away from the plot. Sick cultures can be treated with the drug "Rodomil Gold".
Cabbage disease such as rhizoctonia solani (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn) can cause great damage to the crop. The first symptoms appear on the seedlings - the root neck becomes very thin and dark. Most of these plants die, but often the disease does not give signs until the full maturation of the head. The bottom leaflets on the diseased head of cabbage are dark in color and easily break off, and sometimes they turn away.Important! Not every sprout of a seedling will show up a disease, so the affected sprouts often fall on the bed. And this means that the vigilance of a gardener can not be lost even after harvesting.
The fungus that provokes the disease lives in the soil, so the land for seedlings should be treated with boiling water or potassium permanganate. In addition, the measures of prevention include the observance of crop rotation, seed dressing "Fitolavinnom-300". If an already grown plant is sick, it is also treated with this drug, but in a different concentration.
Bacteriosis on cabbage
Bacteriosis is a very dangerous disease. They are amenable to treatment poorly, spoil the appearance and taste of cabbage heads.
- Mucous bacteriosis (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. Carotovorum (Jones) Waldee) causes significant damage to cabbage during storage or transportation. This disease is of two types. In the first case, the smell of rot appears and the leaves die off, and in the second case, the disease comes from the stalk. Infection can begin through the ground, insects during heat in a tandem with high humidity. Prevention is the destruction of any harmful insects, as well as cleaning plant residues from the garden.
- Vascular bacteriosis (Xanthomonas campestris Dows. Pv. Campestris (Pammel) Dowson) affects the plant at any stage of development, therefore it is especially dangerous for cabbage. The disease spoils both the appearance of the cabbage and its taste. In adult heads, the leaf deteriorates, the plant becomes V-shaped, a black mesh appears on the leaflets. For prophylaxis, they are planting disease-resistant varieties and pickling seeds before planting with drugs such as Agat-25 or TMTD.
Rot is a disease of cabbage, which is difficult to recognize immediately, but they bring considerable harm. Therefore, it is impossible to ignore the appearance of the first signs - as soon as it became clear that the rot struck the head, it is necessary to take urgent measures to respond.
- White rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) appears in a humid and cool environment during the beginning of the formation of the cabbage head. Its first signs are visible during storage of cabbage. Mucus appears on the leaflets, and black spots (fungal spores) are visible at the site of the lesion. Prevention: the storage room must be disinfected in advance, the crop is harvested in dry weather and dried. When harvesting cabbage, you must leave a couple of lower leaves and a 3 cm head of cabbage on a bed. If the disease is detected during storage, you need to cut off the affected areas, and sprinkle them with chalk.
- Gray rot (Botrytis cinerea Pers) rightfully belongs to the class of the most dangerous diseases of cabbage. It causes a large and dense raid on the affected areas, and the head itself begins to quickly rot. Pathogens of the disease are stored for a long time in the soil, on the remains of plants after harvest. The methods of struggle include only agrotechnical measures. The only way to avoid the development of the disease for sure is to plant varieties resistant to this disease: “Gallaxi”, “Monarch”, “Amtrak”, “Airbus”, “Lezhky”.
- Dry rot (Phoma betae) or Phomosis of cabbage appears as white spots with dark dots on the leaves. For treatment, spraying with Fitosporin-M is used. So that the disease does not appear at all, the seeds are planted with 0.5% “Tigam” before planting.
Incurable Cabbage Diseases
Certain diseases of cabbage can not be treated at all. The only option when they appear is to remove all damaged crops from the site. To avoid the emergence of the problem can only be subject to preventive measures.
- Late blight (Phytophthora porri Foister) can destroy up to 50% of the crop. The main symptom is brown spots on the petioles. From the stem (head) the disease passes to the leaves, and the whole head becomes completely unsuitable for storage or consumption. Fusarium develops at temperatures up to +30 degrees. Infection can occur through the earth, bulbous plants, cloves, tools. Prevention: disinfection of land, tools, destruction of weeds.
- Cabbage mosaic is a viral disease that is transmitted through infected plants and insects. Manifested in the form of lightening streaks, slow growth and wrinkled leaves. Prevention is the removal of weeds, but if the disease appeared to fight it is not like. All affected plants are pulled out and burned.
- Fusarium wilting (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans (Wr.) Sn. Et Hans) can destroy from 25% to 100% of the crop. Manifested in the form of chlorotic spots. And if the stem is struck, then all the leaves fall quickly. The development of cabbage disease is observed in the heat and with severe dryness of the air throughout the entire first growing season of the crop. Lives mushroom in the soil. The best way to fight is to plant resistant varieties or spray plants with drugs that increase their immunity: Agat-25, Immunocytophyte. But they do not help, but only support the forces of culture.